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Marxism–Leninism–Stalinism (MLS), commonly known simply as Stalinism, is the most advance stage in the development of Marxism and is the revolutionary science of the proletariat.[1][2][3][4]

Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism was synthesized into a coherent ideology in 1978 by Enver Hoxha,[5] along with the developments made by people such as Lazar Kaganovich and Nikos Zachariadis.[6] It is based on the theory and practice of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin.[7]

Currently, it is a relatively new revolutionary ideology, however, by the 2020s, it has begun to rapidly replace the now commonly revisionary "Marxism-Leninism" which many modern revisionists claim to adhere to.[4]


Context of development

Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism is distinct from precursory developments of Marxist thought in that, while for instance, Leninism was the Marxism of the epoch of imperialism and nascent proletarian revolution, Stalinism is the socialism of moribund imperialism and developed socialism.[3] Stalinism developed from the experience of socialist societies such as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (before 1956) and the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.[8][9] Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism would later be augmented by its followers into the present day.[2][4]

Opposition to revisionism

Most modern Stalinists are in addition anti-revisionists — drawing inspiration from the political and ideological struggles waged against revisionary trends, such as Khrushchevism, and the figures who led such anti-revisionist struggles, namely Enver Hoxha and others.[1][5][10][4]

Socialist economic self-reliance

Stalinists hold that within the context of the development of socialism, the socialist state must rely on its own economic forces rather than external economies. The theory of socialist economic self-reliance was developed by Enver Hoxha, and was most elaborated in his work Imperialism and the Revolution:[11]

"In no case do the capitalists provide their credits for the construction of socialism. They provide them to destroy socialism. Therefore a genuine socialist country never accepts credits, in any form, from a capitalist, bourgeois or revisionist country."

This theory was developed within the greater context of the struggle against social-imperialism. Thus, a socialist state, no matter how small in territorial size, may build socialism in one country without the interference of modern revisionist or capitalist states.[3][4]

Criticism and misconceptions

Revisionists' conflation with "Hoxhaism"

Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism is often referred to as "Hoxhaism", largely by modern revisionists. The label "Hoxhaist" is meant as a pejorative, largely to suggest that Stalinists are merely adherents to the theory of Enver Hoxha and not the other classics of Marxism, or otherwise to imply "cultishness" from Stalinists towards Hoxha and his legacy. However, despite the claims that MLS is truly "Hoxhaism", the term "Hoxhaism" is ideologically and factually incorrect for a plethora of reasons:[12]

  1. Enver Hoxha was merely a followers of the other four classics of Marxism. While he did concoct new theory, his practice was inspired almost in whole by the theory of Stalin, Lenin, etc.. In other words, without the theory of preexisting Marxists, Hoxha would lack any Marxist theory, therefore, "Hoxhaism" as a term is not factual in the sense that, metaphorically, Hoxha without the other classics of Marxism is like a single organ in a body without the rest of the body to attach to.
  2. Enver Hoxha rejected the concept that he founded "Hoxhaism", implicitly or explicitly, in the manner that he always remained and referred to himself as a Marxist-Leninist or later a Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist.
  3. Whereas "Hoxhaism" is metaphysical in that it suggests Hoxha was the only ideologist of "Hoxhaism", Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism correctly displays that Stalinism is founded in Leninism, that Leninism is founded in classical Marxism, etc..

Thus, from known facts, "Hoxhaism" does not exist as anything beyond a simple informalism or pejorative for Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. "Hoxhaists" are Stalinists.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 It is absolutely correct and acceptable to use the term “Stalinism” (14 October, 2007) Anasintaxi
  2. 2.0 2.1 Letter from Moscow, Russia Revolutionary Democracy
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism: the State, the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, Socialism and Communism with Some Critical Comments on the Labor Theory of Value and the Materialistic Interpretation of History by Calvin J. Plater et al. (1949)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Development and Theory of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism (30 March, 2023) Wisconsin Communist
  5. 5.0 5.1 The Demagogy of the Soviet Revisionists Cannot Conceal Their Traitorous Countenance by Enver Hoxha (January 10, 1969) "[...] Bolshevism is always alive in the Soviet Union and the Soviet Bolshevik revolutionaries will not be defeated in the face of the tragedy which the land of the Soviets is living, but they will restore the great traditions of October Revolution, of the heroic times of Lenin and Stalin. And the only road to this is the [creation] of the Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist revolutionary party, that must take in its hands the banner of the struggle for the overthrow of [revisionism] and the [installment] of the dictatorship of the proletariat"
  6. What is Stalinism (30 November, 2021) Neodemocracy
  7. Who are "Hoxhaists"? (4 December, 2022) Stalinist Collective
  8. Nikos Zachariadis on Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism (29 January, 2012)
  9. Dimitris Glinos on Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism (29 January, 2012)
  10. On Stalinism by Bill Bland (30 April, 1999)
  11. Imperialism and the Revolution, by Enver Hoxha (1978)
  12. What is "Hoxhaism"? (7 April, 2023) Wisconsin Communist