Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (2 March 1931 – 30 August 2022) was a Russian and formerly Soviet politician. The eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, he was General Secretary of its governing Communist Party from 1985 until 1991. He was the country's head of state from 1988 until 1991, serving as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990, and President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991. Ideologically, he initially adhered to Marxism-Leninism although the more he had ruled over the USSR he had moved toward Social democracy. He is commonly credited with causing the collapse of the Soviet Union. He is so hated in Russia that he allegedly moved to the USA.